Abstract :

Tulisan ini mencoba untuk mengupas perbedaan dan persamaan antara morpologi                          Bhs. Madura dan Bhs. Inggris, penulis berusaha mengetengahkan konteks morfologi                        Bhs. Madura menurut versi penulis, dimana sampai saat ini belum ada buku tentang morpologi       Bhs. Madura yang dapat dipakai sebagai rujukan sehingga penulis menggunakan versinya sendiri dalam menganalisis morpologi Bhs. Madura. Selanjutnya tujuan yang diinginkan dalam penulisan artikel ini adalah penulis ingin menunjukkan bahwa didalam Bhs. Madura juga terdapat sistem morpologi seperti yang terdapat pada bahasa-bahasa lainnya, dan selanjutnya mencoba untuk membandingkan serta mencari perbedaan serta persamaan  antara morpologi Bhs. Madura dan Bhs. Inggris



Key words:

Morpheme, affixation, derivation, inflection



Madurese[1] language is recently being spread almost all over Java by means of its culture and the population movement out of Madura island[2]. Many people in Java are able to express their idea in Madurese Language as fluently as those of the native. Although their parents are not the native Madurese, they can speak it very fluently because of the neighbours and environment  influence.

The Madurese Language itself virtually has three inteligible dialect sopken by Madurese in Bangkalan Regency, and the second is central dialect spoken by the native in Pamekasan Regency[3], while the last dialect is practiced  in Sumenep Regency as called east dialect. The whole dialect are easly understandable, but the  most standard dialect used in Madurese Language is the Central Dialect as it is taught at the “SD” (elementary school), and at the SMP (Junior High School).

There are three classification of Madurese Language used in Madura Island[4]. The classification itselft showing the stratification of language user[5].  The language of  enja’ iya [ənjə? Iyə]  which is used among friends, relative, and the older people to the younger ones and is considered to the low level. The second level, the language of engghi enten [æŋghi əntən], is said to be the mid level which is used among children when it is the first time for them to learn the language and to practice with people as they think they are getting more mature, it’s also used between the head village to his staff, a rich farmer to his workers, parents to their son in law, and the boss of fisherman to his people. While the last level of Madurese Language is the language of enggi bunten or alos tengghi [æŋghi bhuntên or alos teŋghi] which is used between young people to the elder ones, students to their teacher, and a nephew to his uncle. The main purposes of using the last level is to show the politness, and  to appreciate each other.

The writer of this article interest to analyse the morphological proces of Madurese since there is no standard or Madurese morphological books, the writer who himself live in Madura, uses his own style combining with the style from some other madurese people and than come to the comparation of english morphological process. The other reason is to show that Madurese also has a system of morphological process.

In this article the writer uses phonetical symbol[6], to make easy for the reader who still strange to this language. While the most common consonants distiguishing from the others are bh, dh, gh, jh, ?, k. it will be clearer after we distinguish the word buta and bhuta which means blind and giant.


Main discussion

The writer of this article in this case try to describes the morphemes or in other words he makes an afford to decipher the morphological proces of Madurese and English and also their relationship. The main problems that he would like to discuss as follows :

  1. Does the Madurese have the same affixation as English ?
  2. The differences of Madurese and English Morphological proces such as derivation and inflection



Morphology is the study of the building blocks of meaning in language, but in this case there are many linguist define the word morphology differently[7].   Yet, they have actually the same point of view in reaching the definition itself.



A morph is a meaningful group of phone or the sound of units which cannot be sub devided into two smaller meaningful unit. An allomorph is a class of morp which are phonetically and semantically identical; that is, they have the same phoneme in the same order and the same meaning. A morpheme is a group of allomorphs that are semantically similar and in complementary distribution. Morpheme is also the minimal unit of meaning. While Raja T Nasr[8], a morpheme is a unit in language that carries meaning. It may be composed of one sound or two sound or several sound. The size of unit isn’t important. What is important is that the uint should have meaning and that we should not be able to break it down into smaller unit with meaning.

There are two type of morpheme  in English; that is, free and bound morpheme. A free morpheme is a morpheme which can occur alone as an independent word, or in other word, a morpheme that can stand by itself; for example, the, cat, man, go. This type of morpheme is also called independent morpheme. Meanwhile, a bound morpheme is a morpheme to which other morphemes may be attached or a morpheme that cannot stand by itself; it must be attached to another morpheme in order to be used. This type of morpheme is called dependent morpheme, for example, cats [cat – free morpheme] and [s – bound morpheme].



Affixation is a process of grouping letters or sounds added to be the beginning of words [in the case of prefix] to the middle of word [in the case of infix] or to the end of word [in the case of suffix]. Some how or other, Madurese has infixes such as the example as follow; /pamarenta/ has –am—infix;  that derives from the root parenta [parænta], inserted by –am—after the letter p and before the letter e.  There are actually still many other examples that will be shown latter.

Suffix is an affx that is placed at the end of word or base such as; goodness, cats, winterize. Deriving from good + ness, cat + s. Madurese also has this kind of suffix such as; molana /molana/, akhera /ΛkhærΛ/, didikan /dIdI?Λn/, ngoca’aghi /ŋoca? aghi/ which derive from the morpheme [mola + na], [akher + ra], [didik + an], [ngoca’ + aghi].


Inflection And Derivation.

It is inevitable thing to discuss a little bit about affixation before we come to the discussion of inflection and derivation for they have an obviously tight relation. As he has already deciphered above that affixation might comprise prefix, infix, and suffix. This affixation is a process of identifying words which is the ultimate goal of morphemics being discussed in this article. Let us take an example, a collection of forms in all of which we find the base avoid, which has only one allomorph, /əvoId/ may becomes morphemes after being added by stem, any morpheme or combination of morphemes to which an affix can be added. The word avoid will becomes avoids, avoided, avoidable, avoidance, and unavoidable. This is actually the process of both inflection and derivation. An affix [in English usually a suffix[9], the case of –s and –ed from the stems avoids and avoided] that change the form of word without changing its form class or basic meaning s called inflection. On the other hand, derivation is a process by which noun inflectional affixes are added to bases to form words, as “un-“ in unavoidable, “-able” in avoidable, and both “un-“ and “-able” in unavoidable.


Madurese Morphology

Before analyzing Madurese morphology the writer is going to show the phonetic symbols of Madurese Language followed by the example of Madurese word because they would be used to symbolize the words of Madurese. The manin goal of understanding this phonetic transcription is to make the readers easier to read the words.

i:   as in     bisa                  /bisa/

u   as in     toju’                 /t ju?/

I   as in     muslim             /muslIm/

æ  as in     keba                 /k æbə/

   as in     bakto               /bəktס  /

O  as in     soto                  /sסtס/

   as in     sarong             /srסng/

    As in    pokol               /pסkסl/


Meanwhile the consonant phonemes of Madurese Language[10], the example as follows :

p  as in   petto’                        /p æto?/

b  as in   bato’              /bəto?/

bh   as  in  bakal          /bhəkal/

t      as  in toju’            /t o ju?/

d     as  in darurat        /dərurat/

dh   as  In bundu’        /bhundhu?/

c     as  in carok           /cΛro k/

j      as  in janggu’        /jhəŋgu?/

jh    as  in jaran           /jhərən/

t      as in gantheng      / gənthəŋ/

d     as in darurat         /dərurt/

dh   as in bundu’         /bundhu?/

c     as in carok            /crok/

j      as in janggu’         /jəŋgu?/

jh    as in jaran             /jhərən/

t     as in ganteng         /gənthəŋ/


Morphoponemic Transformation

It’s not only English and some other language that have morphophonemic transcription but the Madurese Language as well. Madurese language has its own characteristic in transforming the phoneme which are some times arbitrary. The function of the trabsformation in the Madurese language is simply to make the language nicer to hear. The morphophonemic are as follow :

1. Assimilation

The base form of the verb stated by acertain consonant and get a nasal prefix symbolized with [-n] form an active –transitive verb by coalescing the consonant such the example below :

/p/        /b/                    coalisced with /m/

/t/         /dh/      /d/        coalisced with /n/

/k/                                coalisced with /ŋ/

/s/         /c/                    coalisced with /ny/


Example :

Pajang             /pΛjəŋ/        a tool for fishing

Majang            /mΛjəŋ/           to catch fish with pajang


Baca                /bəch/ to read

Maca               / m ch/          to read


Toles                /to lês/              to write

Noles               /nolês/              to write


Dhapa’                        /dhəp?/          to arrive

Napa  /np?/ to arrive


Care                 /cræ/               to tear

Nyare              /nj ræ/ to tear


The base form of the verb standar with vowel, add / ŋ/ at he base to form an activetransitif verb


Arte     /a:tæ/               meaning

Ngarte / ŋa:/           understand



2. Suffix  /-na/ indicates possesive

The root of the word or base seeding in vowel or in /?/, suffik /-na/ is placed after base. Let’s see the example below :

Raja     /rjə/                 big

Rajana / rjən/            the size


Ompama /ompm/                        example

Ompamana /ompmn /         for example


Bakto              /bəkto  /          time

Baktona           /bəkton/         the time


Meanwhile, the bases of the word ending in consonant and get suffix /-na/, the phoneme /n/ in /-na/ should be replaced with the last consonant of the bases where the voiceless sound become coiced sound, for example :


Dhapor                        /dhəpor/           kitchen

Dhaporra         /dhəporr/        the kitchen


Ongkos            /  oŋkos/          fare

Ongkossa        /  oŋkoss/      the fare


Suffix /-na/ is also used to transfer adjective into adverb adjective into adverb after being added by root “ce’” /cæ?/


Ce’      /cæ?/                quite, very

Lebar   /læbərrə/          wide

Ce’ lebar / cæ? læbərrə/ quite wide



Morphological Proces Of The Madurese Language

The Morphological process being presented in this section employ following cases ; base or root, morpheme type, derivation consisting of prefix, infix, suffix and both prefix and suffix, inflection comprising plural form (reduplication).

  1. Base or Root

A base or root is a free form to which other morpheme may be attached. In Madurese language, the root going to discussed is related to the syllables of the word. There are about three bases of the Madurese Language which is accordance with the syllables as follow :

a. The base with one syllables

e /æ/                       at, on, in [as preposition]

se /sæ/                    that [conjuntion]

dha’/dhə?/             to

hal /hΛl/                about

ban /bn/                and, with

ka / kΛ/                 to

gun /ghun/ only


  1. The base with two syllables

badha /bədhə/        exist

bakto /bəkto  /       time



  1. The base with three syllables

samangken /sΛmΛŋk æn/              now

manabi /mΛnΛbI/                           if



2. Morpheme Type

The word banding /bəndIŋ/ is said to be the base consisting two syllables. It can be called as independent morpheme or free morpheme because it can occur alone as an independent word. The other examples of free morpheme in the Madurese language are; ban, badha, ampon, otaba, bannya’, etc. They can stand by themselves and don’t need any other morphemes to be attached. The other type of morpheme in the Madurese Language as a bound morpheme, a morpheme that cannot stand by itself; it must be attached to another morpheme. This kind of morpheme also called dependent morpheme because the morpheme cannot occur alone.  The /-aghI/ of //bəndIŋΛghI/cannot occur alone. It represent the suffix in Madurese language. It doesn’t have any meaning without being attached to the word /bəndIŋ/.


3. Derivation

Derivation is a process by which non inflectional affixes are added to bases to form words as “en-“  in enjoin, “-ful” in hopeful and both “dis-“ and “-ful” in distrustful. Below, the discussion going to focus on the affixation namely; prefix, infix, suffix, and both prefix and suffix.

a. Prefix

There are about five prefixes in Madurese Language going to presented, namely : /ma-/, /a-/, /e-/, /ta-/, and /pa-/. It will be clear with the example for each of the prefix, as follow :

> /ma-/   [noun]  makanca /mΛkΛncΛ/ → to cause to be friend

                                                     Vb. Causal

> mamaju [verb] [mΛmΛju]          to develop

                                           Vb. Active, focus on subject

> malancar [adj] /mΛlΛnca:/    to smothen

                                           Vb. Active, focus on subject

> masakone’ [numeral]  → to cause to be little

                                           Vb. Causal

b. Suffix

There are about five suffixes in Madurese Language going to be presented, namely: /-a/, /-an/,    /-ana/, /-aghi/, and /-e/. The examples are as follow

F suffix /-a/  could be form with the root noun, verb, adjective and also numeral

→ abengkowa /ΛbəŋkowΛ/        will live at his own house

→ bisa’a  /bIsΛ?a/                     → will be able to

→ mera’a /mærΛ?a/                  → will become red

→ dhuwa’a /dhuə?ə/                 → will become two

The other suffixes such as : /-an/, /-ana/, /-aghi/, /-e/ generally used with the other prefixes such as : /a-/, /-e/, /ma-/, /ka-/, and /pa(N)-/. They will be clear with the example below :

F Prefix and Suffix /pa(N)- + -an/ :

These affixes are formed with the base, noun, verb, and adjective

Noun                  → pangarteyan /pΛŋarteyan/  → understanding

Verb                   → pamekkeran /pΛmækkæran/ → thought

Adjective           → panerrangan /pΛnerraŋan/  → explanation

F Prefix and Suffix /ka- + -an/

These affixes are formed with the base, noun, verb, adjective, and numeral

Noun                  → karomatanggaan /kΛromΛtΛŋgaan/ → about household

Verb                   → kalakowan /kΛlΛkowΛn/  → job

Adjective           → kasaean /kΛsΛæΛn/ → something nice

Numeral → kabanya’an /kΛbənňa?an/ → most of

F Prefix and Suffix /(N)-/, /-a/, /ma-/, /e/ with /aghi/, /-e/, /-ana/ which formed with base : noun, verb, adjective and numeral

Base : [pote]      mapoteaghi /mΛpoteΛghI/  to make something white          

Base: [jalan] ajalanaghi /ΛjələnΛghI/ to carry something

Base:  [tengal] etengalana /ætæŋΛlΛnΛ/ will be seen



4. Inflextion


As had been expleined above that Inflextion is a process of affixation whether prefix, infix or suffix that doesn’t change the classes of words. The example of Madurese inflextion will be shown below

Verb [mamaju] /mΛmΛjhu/       to develop, with prefix /ma-/

Verb [ajalan] /Λjələn/  to walk, with prefix /a-/

Verb [bisa’a] /bIsΛ?Λ/ will be able, with suffix /-a/


Madurese Infixation

Madurese has five kinds of infixation, namely /-al-/, /-am-/, /-ar/, /-en/, and /-om-/,  the example each  of them will be shown below :

F Infix /-al-/ In word calemot           

base : cemot

Inserted by /-al-/ between consonant “c” and the rest phoneme “emot”

F Infix /-am-/ in word pamarenta

Base : parenta

Inserted by /-am-/ between consonant “p” and the rest of the phoneme “arenta”

F Infix /-am-/ in word karretek

Base : kettek

Inserted by /-ar-/ between consonant “k”and the rest of the phoneme “ettek”

F Infix /-am-/ in word penasthe

Base : pasthe

Inserted by /-en-/ between “p” and the rest phoneme “as the”

F Infix /-am-/ in word tomekka

Base : tekka

Inserted by consonant “t” and the rest of the phoneme “ “ekka”


English Morphology

Since there are so many books describing about English Morphology written by many authors, the writer of this article doesn’t describes English in detail, on the other hand I  only dechipers the process of morphology to be compared with the Madurese Language morphology.



Affix is a group of letters or sounds added either to the beginning of a word, to the middle of a word, or to the end of a word. Since English doesn’t have any infix, here the focus of analisys only to the prefix and suffix.


English Prefix

Here are some prefixes in English which are commonly used in everyday English :

/mis-/, /re-/, /pre-/, /post-/, /bi-/, /semi-/, /in-/, /im-/, /il-/, /ir-/, /un-/, /dis-/, /-en-/, /inter-/, /intra-/, /extra-/, /trans-/, /tele-/, /over-/, /under-/, /up-/, /down-/, /in-/, and /out-/.

The example of the prefix will be shown on the table below :



















/-en-/, /inter-/, /intra-/, /extra-/, /trans-/, /tele-/, /over-/, /under-/, /up-/, /down-/, /in-/,




















































English Suffixes

Suffixs is an affix that is placed at the end of the word or base. It usually affects the changing of the word classes such as verb to noun, from verb to adjectives, from noun to adjective, and from adjectives to noun. This kind of process is usually called as derivational suffixes or derivational morpheme[11].

  1. verb bocome Noun after being added by suffixes /-tion/, /-sion/, /-ure/, -al/, /ment-/, /-ce, ance/, /-ess/, /-th/









-al/, /ment-/,

/-ce, ance/




















  1. Verb become adjective being added by suffix /-able/

i.e. to bear       → bearable

  1. verb . become adjective after being added by suffixes /-y/, /-ous/, /-ful/, /-al/

Ø  anger→ angry

Ø  danger→dangerous

Ø  wonder→wonderfull

Ø  conditional→conditional

  1. Adjective become Noun after being added by suffixes /-ce/, /-ness/, /-ity/

Ø  patient→patence

Ø  sad→sadness

Ø  able→ability


Comparing Some Madurese And English Morphological Process

Having been analized both Madurese and English Morphological Process above, now come up to  compare between thele language, in this case the writer could express his idea that Madurese and English morphological have similiarities and differences process in several aspect.

  1. Assimilation

The process of assimilation, often a phonemic change which takes place when two morpheme are combined results in neighboring phonemes becoming more like each other, in Madurese Language as the process of changing the first consonant in order to form verb such as :

/p/ become /m/ as in pajang (N) → majang (V)

/b/ become /m/ as in baca (N) → maca (V)

/t/ become /n/ as in toles (V) → noles (V)

/dh/ become /n/ as in dhapa’(V) → napa’ (V)

/k/ become /ŋ/ as in kole’(N) → ngole’e (V)

/i/ become /ŋ/ as in iman (N) → ngimani (V)


Meanwhile, assimilation in English takes place in the proces of affixes, usually prefix /in/ and /en/ are changing forming new words

/m/ become /in/ in imbalance →in + balance

/in/ become /im/as in impossible → in + possible

/in/ become /ir/ as in irregular → in + regular

/in/ become /em/ as in empower → in + power

/in/ become /il/ as in illegal → in + legal

  1. Base / root

Principally, the root of the Madurese Language is similar to the root of English because every language has been the same root that would be regarded as a source of word to which other morphemes may be attached. The thing that make them different is on the number of syllables. It’s impossible to find a base consisting of four syllables or five in Madurese Language. While English has more than four syllables in its base such as in the following classification :

The root of Madurese Language


The root of


Ban /bən/

Bakto /bəkto/


One syllable

Two syllables

Three syllables

Four syllables

Five syllables







  1. Morpheme

The distribution of morpheme in the Madurese Language and English at the same. They have both free morpheme and bound morpheme. Let see the comparation below :


Madurese Morpheme

Bakto          → comprises one free morpheme

Baktona → comprises two morpheme, that is one free morpheme / bəkto/ and one bound morpheme /na/ which means possesive “one’s time”

Ajalan   → comprises two morpheme, that is one bound morpheme /a-/ and free morpheme /jalan/ which means “to walk”

Epokolla    comprises of three morpheme that is, the free morpheme /pokol/ means “to hit” and twobound morphemes ; ie, /e-/ and /-a/ that form future and passive voice “will be hit”

Etale’e  → comprises three morphemes, that is, one free morphemes /tale/ means “rope” and /-e/ as suffix which form a passive meaning “to be tied”

English Morpheme

Love          → comprises one free morpheme

Lover      → comprises one free morpheme /love/ and one bound morpheme /r/ which means “sweetheart”

Loved          → comprises one free morpheme /love/ and one bound morpheme /d/ which means “past form”

Unforgetable → comprises three morphemes that is noe bound morpheme /un-/ means “not” and two free morphemes /forget/ and /able/ which indicates “verb” and “adjective”


  1. Derivation

The process of affixes that change the classes of word is called derivation[12]. Both Madurese and English have this kind of process.





Verb (V) become Noun

Pekker →pekkeran



verb (V) become adjective

kepe’ → takepe’

lendes → talendes


Noun (N) become adjective

Pongkon → tapngkon

Terrang → panerrangan


Adjective become verb

Lancar → malancar

Raja → maraja


Noun become verb

Kanca → makanca

Sakola → asakola


Numeral become Verb

Sakone’ → masakone’

Banya’ → epabannya’


Numeral become Noun

Bannya’ → kabannya’an

Sakone’ → kasakone’an

Verb become Noun

Inform → information

Permit → permision


Verb become adjectives

Bear → bearable

Obtain → obtainable


Noun become adjecives

Anger → angry

Danger → dangerous


Adjective become Noun

Patient → patience

Sad → sadness


Adjective become verb

Large → enlarge

Rich → enrich


  1. Inflection

The process of affixes that doesn’t change the classes of word is called inflection [13]. Both Madurese and English have this kind of process. As shown below :



koceng → noun

ceng-koceng → plural Noun


alako →  verb – work

alakowa → will work


eanggap → verb

passive “to be regarded”

eanggabbe → Verb, future passive, will be regarded


romatangga→Noun “household”

karomatanggaan → Noun

about household

Cats → cats = nouns plural

Work → verb

Works → Verb 3rd singular


Worked → work =Verb

Worked = verb stem + past


From the table above, we can conclude that Madurese has more distribution in Inflection. It’s only has inflectional suffixes usually available in English, but also inflectional prefixes as well.



Based on  the proces of morphological both  Madurese and English that shown above, finally we can conclude that Madurese and English have similarities and differences in the proces of morphology, especially on their morphemic distribution. While on the assimilation of both of them, Madurese Language has a wider distribution than that in English.

English nouns sometimes have the –s ending to show plurality, while in Madurese language, the pluralty marker in noun is none, yet plural inflection may transfere to reduplicationg in every noun-stem. Base or root in Madurese language has three syllables at most, while in English, the base of word could be four syllables or more. While, derivational prefix, and derivational suffixes, are found in both English and the Madurese language. Yet, English does not distribute Noun become Verb, Numeral become Verb, and Numeral become Nouns.

While the most important thing that infixation which only found in Madurese. The Madurese infixes are formed by the phoneme rest of the base from noun, adjective and verb. Infixation which is not found in English may present difficulties for a native speaker of English to learn on account of it distribution.




[1] Bahasa madura adalah salah satu bahasa Austronesia yang dipakai oleh lebih dari tiga belas juta penutur atau sekitar 5% penduduk Indonesia. Meskipun bahasa Madura memiliki jumlah penutur yang tidak sedikit karena menduduki peringkat nomor empat yang terbanyak dituturkan oleh penduduk Indonesia setelah Jawa, Indonesia dan Sunda. Mulyadi, Potensi Pergeseran Dalam Bahasa Madura, Okara Jurnal Bahasa dan Sastra, Vol III, tahun 2, Mei 2007, hal. 197

[2] Pulau madura yang terdiri dari empat kabupaten, yaitu Bangkalan, Sampang, Pamekasan, dan Sumenep terletak di timur laut pulau Jawa dengan koordinat sekita 7o lintang selatan dan antara 112o dan 114o bujur timur. Panjang pulau Madura Kurang lebih 190 Km, jarak terlebar 40 Km, dan luas secara keseluruhan adalah 5.304 km2. ketinggian dari permukaan laut berkisar antara 2 meter – 350 meter. Ketinggian paling rendah adalah daerah daerah pantai baik dibagian barat, utara, timur, dan selatan sedangkan ketinggian tertinggi menyebar di bagian tengah pulau berupa pegunungan-pegunungan kecil. Pulau ini dikelilingi oleh pulau-pulau kecil yang jumlahnya lebih dari 100, baik yang berpenghuni maupun yang tidak, kebanyakan berada dibagian timur, baca De Jonge 1989 pada Latief Wiyata, Carok Konflik Kekerasan Dan Harga Diri Orang Madura, 2002, LkiS, Yogjakarta, hal. 29.

[3] Secara Geografis, Kabupaten Pamekasan terletak pada posisi 6o 52 sampai 7o13 Lintang selatan dan 113o19 sampai 113o58 Bujur, dengan batas-batas administratif : sebelah utara, Laut Jawa; sebelah selatan; Selat Madura; sebelah barat; kabupaten Sampang dan sebelah Timur; kabupaten Sumenep, dengan luas wilayah sekitar 792,30 Km2 atau sekitar 79.230 HA, baca H. Kutwa, Pamekasan Dalam Sejarah, Karunia Offset, 2003, hal14

[4] Read, Moh Tajib, Materi Pangajaran Basa Madura Jilid III SMP Kelas III, GBPP 1988, edisi percobaan, baca juga Helene Bouvier, 2002, Yayasan Obor Indonesia, hal 24, dia menyatakan bahwa Bahasa Madura memiliki beberapa tingkat bahasa (antara tiga dan lima menurutnya) yang tidak dikenal ataupun dipraktekkan secara merata di semua lapisan masyarakat. Tingkat yang paling banyak digunakan adalah kasar, yaitu untuk berbicara kepada orang dengan umur dan status yang setara atau lebih rendah daripada diri sendiri, alos yang dipakai berbicara kepada orang ynag lebih tua atau sebagai bahasa sopan santun pada pertemuan pertama dengan orang ynag belum dikenal ; alos tengghi, yang dipakai bila betbicara kepada orang yang berstatus jauh lebih tinggi

[5] Stratifikasi tutur adalah suatu sistem bertutur kata yang mempunyai batas-batas jelas terhadap formalitas dan hal-hal yang menyangkut rasa hormat. Makin tinggi derajat formalitas dan rasa hormat yang ingin ditunjukkan dalam bertutur kata makin tinggi pula kesopanan yang ditunjukkan dalam bertutur kata. See Abdul Wahab, in Mulyadi, hal 198

[6] Photenical symbol is symbols used to show how the word should be pronunce in its own language. The symbol used in this article is the International phonetical Alphabet, See, AP Cowie, Oxford Learner’s Pocket Dictionary, Oxford University Press, sixth impression 1987

[7] Read, Ronald Wardaugh, Introduction to Linguistic, university of Toronto, McGraw-Hill book company , 1972 p.46, he states that morphology as study of morphemes and their combination in words. See also, PH Mattews, An Introduction the Theory of Word-Structure, Cambridge University press, 1974, p39, …morphology as the study of form of words,

While, A Nida Eugene, 1974, define morphology is the meaningful unit of which a alnguage is composed. Morphemes and their combination in words, form of words, and a meaningful unit, seem to be differents espression at first glance but they actually present the same meaning; that is , expressing about words.

[8] A professor of Education and linguistics in Beirut University college, Lebanon, Raja T Nasr, 1985, The Essentials of Linguistic Science, Longman group ltd

[9] We can also observe that in English all the inflectional affixes are suffixes, as in cats, man’s, judged, and so on. The only exception occurs in forms like men, deer, and took which either show some change in the middle of the form, as in men and took to indicate “plural” and “past tense” respectively, or show no change at all to indicates “pliural” as in the deer of two deer. English derivational affixes may either prefixes or suffixes. Retake, unbend, and dispossess are words with derivational prefixes, brighten, judgement, and victimize are example of derivational suffixes, and unemployment, unindirectional are examples of both prefixing and suffixing.  Ronald Wardaugh, Introduction to Linguistic, 1972, University of Toronto, McGraw-Hill book company, p85

[10] The complete consonant phonemes of Madurese shown clearly in  Aziz Safiudin, Kamus Bahasa Madura – Indonesia, Pusat Pembinaan dan Pengembangan Bahasa, Depdikbud Jakarta, 1977

[11] Morpheme that change the meaning or part of speech of a word they attach to are called derivational morphemes. Other morphemes do not alter words in this way but onlgrammatical information about the word’s already existing meaning. For example, cat and cats are both nouns that have basically the same meaning (ie, they refer to the same sort of thing), but cats, with the plural morpheme –s, contains only the additional information that there are more than one of these things referred to. Inn English the derivational morphemes are either prefixes or suffixes, but by chance, the inflextional morphemes are all suffixes. Of course, this is not the same in other languages. Stefanie Jannedy et al, Language Files, 1991, Ohio state University

[12] Ibid, page135

[13] Ibid, page 135

Creative Teaching written by Abd. Ghofur


Effective teaching calls for understanding the best teaching methods for specific learning situations. Because age groups differs in such areas as interest, mental ability, and attention span (John, 1995), the teacher must choose teaching methods that are appropriate for his group. Children, for example have learning characteristics that differ considerably from those of adults, and teaching method which may be very effective with adults will not necessarily achive communication with children.

Choice of teaching  method is indeed a crucial part of the teaching process. While creativity in teaching is a currently term among educators, the concept of newness and freshness which it conveys has always been basic to good teaching. Creativity should be the living experience of the teacher. In this case he try to change the student experience by the teacher study together with his student. (Ira Shor & Paulo Freire, 2001).  The effect of creativity should be seen in lesson preparation and presentation if the life throb today is to permeate our thingking.

Response to challenge.

There  are few challenge in any realm of life which are as great as that classroom teaching. This challenge is further magnified in the teaching learning process. A creative response to the challenge may include new planning procedures, fresh ways to elicit the interest of every students, better organization of the subject matter, or greater variety in teaching methods. (DePorter ,2002). While Richard (1998:15) states that,

……method is an overall plan for the orderly presentation of language material, no part of which contradict, and all of which is based on upon, the selected approach.


Categories of method

The variety of teaching methods is almost limitless. It may be helpful, therefore, to think of categories of methods and place specific methods within the following general categories.

Teacher to pupil communication

This an emphasis on the teacher as the performer in the educational process. Such methodology as lecture, story telling, and demonstration would be placed here.

Pupil to teacher communication

In this category the pupil is the major performer, with the teacher basically in a listening roll. Such methods as recitation, reports, and testing would be included.

Teacher with pupil communication

This, in the opinion of a large portion of professional educators, is the best approach for the teaching-learning process. It is an approach which involves teacher and pupil in mutual quest for truth. Two familiar examples of this type of method are class discussion, and question and answer.



Group activity

There is a wide range of group activity that can be utilized as teaching method, and this approach is finding increasing development and use in education. Activities as panels, debates, discussion groups, and all forms of drama could be categorized under this general heading.

Instructice play

This category of teaching method is usually used with pupils from cradle to junior age. Examples in this classification include educational games and toys, sand table, puppets, fingers plays, puzzles, and contest, simple role playing, and action songs.

Non-classroom activity

In a serious educational program the teacher is concerned that the student prepare himself for a class by studying in advance. Guided preparation carefully related to susewquent class sessions can contribute much spiritual growth. This category actually extends itself beyond preparation and includes such thing as field trips, research, and projects.


Constant development of  ideas

Creativity might be defined as a quality which causes the teacher to develop original and imaginative ideas in teaching. Actually, ideas verbalized or visualized in classroom work can be just as dynamic and significant as ideas which find form in the work of artist and mucisians. The teacher who brings fresh insight and approach to the teaching situation is truly a creative artist.


The use of  imagination

Imagination is usually associated with storytelling in creative teaching. However, dedicated imagination has a place in all areas of teaching. The teacher, for example, who is able to visualize the classroom as Daniel’s lions’ den for junior or Roman from his high school discussion adds a creative dimension to his teaching. Picturing the A postle Paul writing the book Philippians in a Roman jail brings new prospective to a study of that book.

There may be some who feel that the use of imagination is beyond their ability. However, there is considerable encouragement on the possibility of developing creative imagination.

Where creative can be taught. It can be taught because the process of being creative is the process of developing one’s self as a personality. It is the process of unfettering the chains of habit, routine, and repression. It is the process of shaping one’s surrounding, or relating one’s self productivity to others; it is the process of identifying one’s self  and defining one’s own existence. This is the central problem of creativity; it is also the central problem of education.


The application of Creativity

Creative remains an abstract concept until it is applied to classroom procedures. These are suggestion on principles of application.


1. Creative method

Creativity in method has many application but most of all it means variety. The creative teacher will not allow himself  to become stereotyped in his teaching methodology (Syaiful:1997). His methods will vary. He will combine methods he will introduce ways of communicating which have never been demonstrated to his class before, and he will seek by reading, conference, and experiment to keep his class presentation fresh  and invigorating.


2. Creativity in room facilities

The physical features of the classroom offer definite opportunity for creativity. For example, the use of circle, semi circle, small groups, or perhaps the getting rid of desk and chairs entirely in some children’s departments, may brings a fresh sense of creativity to the whole classroom setting. It could conceivably revolutionize the attitude of students in that room toward the teaching hour. Similarly, the use of pictures, bulletin boards, and fres paint offers potential creartive opportunity.


3. Creativity in assignments

Few would argue against the benefit of having the student prepare for a class through some type of outside study. There is considerable problem, however, on how such outside study can be motivated the student to study. Here is a challenge for the creative teacher. He is not satisfied with a causal “read the chapter”, but will attempt to establish inner motivation and desire.


4. Qualities of a creative teacher

Creativity is not present to the same degree in every individuals, although nearly everyone has capacity for it. While there may be a close correlation between high creativity and above average intelligence, intelligence is not necessarily the primary ingredient of creativity. Creativity has several comon qualities.


5. Enthusiasm

Enthusiasm is not to be equated with noise or mere physical activity.


6. Open Mindedness

The highly creative person has an open-mindedness to experience. He does not interpret each statement and act of his students by preconceived conclusions. He seeks new solutions to old problems. He relates old principles to new problems in new ways and with new emphasis. He applies the wisdom of the past to the challenge of the nature by a willingness to listen to others and help them find for themselves the answer they seek.




7. Sensitivity

The creative person, whether artist, musician, or teacher, is sensitive to his surroundings. He is observant of sounds, colors, people, and the daily events of life that surround us. Again, this is an abilioty that can be cultivated by the teacher who desire to improve his creative power.


8. Personal Growth

There is never a time when he knows all there is to know about his students. The dedicated teacher is constantly growing in his abilities, and his creative potential grows with him, (Pidarta ,1997)


Developing Creativity

Practices which encourage creativity ougth to engage the mind of the teacher regularly. Let us consider some of these exercises;

Develop a good reading program

One can increase creativity through vocabulary and thought patterns developed by effective reading. Good reading involves both methods and content. Underlining, taking notes, and other methods of conserving raeding results multiply the effectiveness of the reading. For reading content, choose stimulating books on teaching, as well as keeping up with helpful material in period of teaching.

Apply problem-solving techniques

The creative person seeks to develop ways to approach and handle problems. A good problem-solving approach usually involves isolating the problem, suggesting solutions, evaluating solutions, selecting the best solution, and putting it into practice on experimental basis.




Use “brainstorming” approach

Quantity often provides a base for quality. As a teacher by himself or with others list all the ideas that come spontaneously and immediately on a particular subject, he exercises his mental abilities. Then, as he is able to dip into a resource of numerous ides on a given question, he has a widedr field to work with than just casual study might produce.

Practice deferred judgement

Waiting to judge an idea until t has been given a hearing creates a healty climate for idea production. The teacher who would be creative is one who listens to ideas regardless of his own bias or initial reaction. He never shuts off his own thinking on the basis that his ideas aren’t worthwhile or wont’t work. Ultimately, of course, the value of ideas must be determined, but they must first permitted expression.


Encouraging Creativity in Students

The teacher who is aware of creative possibilities usually seeks to develop creativity on the part of his students. He wants to encourage imaginative and original ideas, and have his students ultimately be able to solve their own problems. Several qualities should characterize the teaching situation if such creativity is going to be developed in students.


Emphaty on the part of the teacher

Attempt to see things from a students’s viewpoint. An old Indian proverb suggests that no Indian brave should comment on his brother’s behavior until he has lived in his moccasins for at least a week. The teacher who would help the student grow must know some of the home problems and difficulties of his student, as well as having some understanding of the characteristics of the age group with which he is working. As a teacher, they have to know the student learning


Variety in the teaching situation

As already indicated, variety is one of the observable characteristic of creative teaching. The teacher who would stir his students cannot just transmit the same notes or use the same approach  week after week. There must be change, there must be freshness in the classroom situation.


Tolerance in classroom work

Growth in student creativity is encouraged by a classroom atmosphere that allows for mistakes. The wise teacher seeks to guide  the student toward corrected thinking rather than abruptly cutting off any discussion that is not fully correct. Such a cooperative learning process, where the teacher neither dominates nor discourages classroom activity, develops students interest and initiative.


Evaluation by the student

Students must be taught how to test ideas and establish true values. This involves such areas correct perspective on peer group pressures and understanding the application of Scriptures to life situation. Eventually, the student must establish his own pattern of living and make independent decision. The teacher points toward this by creative teaching that introduces real life situations and guides the student toward his feeling. In this process the by availability and conference serves as a resources person. He also encourages the use of all partinet materials.



The effective teacher will always be looking for information and materials which will enhance his teaching ministry.  Remember that the effective teacher plans for almost all the learning experiences that will take place during the class period. He tries to think ahead and considser what question the students might ask him about difficult or controversial passages in the lesson. He also previews the entire class period as much as possible in his own mind. He visualizes himself  beginning the lesson, and carrying it on through. He may even practice stating certain questions which will be keys to discussion.  It is said that one enjoys doing whatever one does well and that one learns to do well whatever one enjoys. This certainly can and should be applied to teaching.

Welcome to our Zone

One think that I want to say, be happy in your life, facing all facts that going to fall in your day, think nice, feel good by “LAUGHING and SMILE” make your day and your world colourful. There’s nothing to do without our mood, motivation, and of course by our spirit that com with our goodwill, wil make us different from the other one.

To make different we have to get great support, of course from our deep heart-deep feeling, and also from our will to make us better than the other. crossing the world of problem by great brave, and be sure that all problem going to stop, by finding the way out that come from our fell, our mind, and ……….

Be brave , and get your success.