MADURESE AND ENGLISH LANGUAGE by Abd. Ghofur

 

 

Abstract :

Tulisan ini mencoba untuk mengupas perbedaan dan persamaan antara morpologi                          Bhs. Madura dan Bhs. Inggris, penulis berusaha mengetengahkan konteks morfologi                        Bhs. Madura menurut versi penulis, dimana sampai saat ini belum ada buku tentang morpologi       Bhs. Madura yang dapat dipakai sebagai rujukan sehingga penulis menggunakan versinya sendiri dalam menganalisis morpologi Bhs. Madura. Selanjutnya tujuan yang diinginkan dalam penulisan artikel ini adalah penulis ingin menunjukkan bahwa didalam Bhs. Madura juga terdapat sistem morpologi seperti yang terdapat pada bahasa-bahasa lainnya, dan selanjutnya mencoba untuk membandingkan serta mencari perbedaan serta persamaan  antara morpologi Bhs. Madura dan Bhs. Inggris

 

 

Key words:

Morpheme, affixation, derivation, inflection

 

Preface

Madurese[1] language is recently being spread almost all over Java by means of its culture and the population movement out of Madura island[2]. Many people in Java are able to express their idea in Madurese Language as fluently as those of the native. Although their parents are not the native Madurese, they can speak it very fluently because of the neighbours and environment  influence.

The Madurese Language itself virtually has three inteligible dialect sopken by Madurese in Bangkalan Regency, and the second is central dialect spoken by the native in Pamekasan Regency[3], while the last dialect is practiced  in Sumenep Regency as called east dialect. The whole dialect are easly understandable, but the  most standard dialect used in Madurese Language is the Central Dialect as it is taught at the “SD” (elementary school), and at the SMP (Junior High School).

There are three classification of Madurese Language used in Madura Island[4]. The classification itselft showing the stratification of language user[5].  The language of  enja’ iya [ənjə? Iyə]  which is used among friends, relative, and the older people to the younger ones and is considered to the low level. The second level, the language of engghi enten [æŋghi əntən], is said to be the mid level which is used among children when it is the first time for them to learn the language and to practice with people as they think they are getting more mature, it’s also used between the head village to his staff, a rich farmer to his workers, parents to their son in law, and the boss of fisherman to his people. While the last level of Madurese Language is the language of enggi bunten or alos tengghi [æŋghi bhuntên or alos teŋghi] which is used between young people to the elder ones, students to their teacher, and a nephew to his uncle. The main purposes of using the last level is to show the politness, and  to appreciate each other.

The writer of this article interest to analyse the morphological proces of Madurese since there is no standard or Madurese morphological books, the writer who himself live in Madura, uses his own style combining with the style from some other madurese people and than come to the comparation of english morphological process. The other reason is to show that Madurese also has a system of morphological process.

In this article the writer uses phonetical symbol[6], to make easy for the reader who still strange to this language. While the most common consonants distiguishing from the others are bh, dh, gh, jh, ?, k. it will be clearer after we distinguish the word buta and bhuta which means blind and giant.

 

Main discussion

The writer of this article in this case try to describes the morphemes or in other words he makes an afford to decipher the morphological proces of Madurese and English and also their relationship. The main problems that he would like to discuss as follows :

  1. Does the Madurese have the same affixation as English ?
  2. The differences of Madurese and English Morphological proces such as derivation and inflection

 

Morphology

Morphology is the study of the building blocks of meaning in language, but in this case there are many linguist define the word morphology differently[7].   Yet, they have actually the same point of view in reaching the definition itself.

 

Morpheme

A morph is a meaningful group of phone or the sound of units which cannot be sub devided into two smaller meaningful unit. An allomorph is a class of morp which are phonetically and semantically identical; that is, they have the same phoneme in the same order and the same meaning. A morpheme is a group of allomorphs that are semantically similar and in complementary distribution. Morpheme is also the minimal unit of meaning. While Raja T Nasr[8], a morpheme is a unit in language that carries meaning. It may be composed of one sound or two sound or several sound. The size of unit isn’t important. What is important is that the uint should have meaning and that we should not be able to break it down into smaller unit with meaning.

There are two type of morpheme  in English; that is, free and bound morpheme. A free morpheme is a morpheme which can occur alone as an independent word, or in other word, a morpheme that can stand by itself; for example, the, cat, man, go. This type of morpheme is also called independent morpheme. Meanwhile, a bound morpheme is a morpheme to which other morphemes may be attached or a morpheme that cannot stand by itself; it must be attached to another morpheme in order to be used. This type of morpheme is called dependent morpheme, for example, cats [cat – free morpheme] and [s – bound morpheme].

 

Affixation

Affixation is a process of grouping letters or sounds added to be the beginning of words [in the case of prefix] to the middle of word [in the case of infix] or to the end of word [in the case of suffix]. Some how or other, Madurese has infixes such as the example as follow; /pamarenta/ has –am—infix;  that derives from the root parenta [parænta], inserted by –am—after the letter p and before the letter e.  There are actually still many other examples that will be shown latter.

Suffix is an affx that is placed at the end of word or base such as; goodness, cats, winterize. Deriving from good + ness, cat + s. Madurese also has this kind of suffix such as; molana /molana/, akhera /ΛkhærΛ/, didikan /dIdI?Λn/, ngoca’aghi /ŋoca? aghi/ which derive from the morpheme [mola + na], [akher + ra], [didik + an], [ngoca’ + aghi].

 

Inflection And Derivation.

It is inevitable thing to discuss a little bit about affixation before we come to the discussion of inflection and derivation for they have an obviously tight relation. As he has already deciphered above that affixation might comprise prefix, infix, and suffix. This affixation is a process of identifying words which is the ultimate goal of morphemics being discussed in this article. Let us take an example, a collection of forms in all of which we find the base avoid, which has only one allomorph, /əvoId/ may becomes morphemes after being added by stem, any morpheme or combination of morphemes to which an affix can be added. The word avoid will becomes avoids, avoided, avoidable, avoidance, and unavoidable. This is actually the process of both inflection and derivation. An affix [in English usually a suffix[9], the case of –s and –ed from the stems avoids and avoided] that change the form of word without changing its form class or basic meaning s called inflection. On the other hand, derivation is a process by which noun inflectional affixes are added to bases to form words, as “un-“ in unavoidable, “-able” in avoidable, and both “un-“ and “-able” in unavoidable.

 

Madurese Morphology

Before analyzing Madurese morphology the writer is going to show the phonetic symbols of Madurese Language followed by the example of Madurese word because they would be used to symbolize the words of Madurese. The manin goal of understanding this phonetic transcription is to make the readers easier to read the words.

i:   as in     bisa                  /bisa/

u   as in     toju’                 /t ju?/

I   as in     muslim             /muslIm/

æ  as in     keba                 /k æbə/

   as in     bakto               /bəktס  /

O  as in     soto                  /sסtס/

   as in     sarong             /srסng/

    As in    pokol               /pסkסl/

 

Meanwhile the consonant phonemes of Madurese Language[10], the example as follows :

p  as in   petto’                        /p æto?/

b  as in   bato’              /bəto?/

bh   as  in  bakal          /bhəkal/

t      as  in toju’            /t o ju?/

d     as  in darurat        /dərurat/

dh   as  In bundu’        /bhundhu?/

c     as  in carok           /cΛro k/

j      as  in janggu’        /jhəŋgu?/

jh    as  in jaran           /jhərən/

t      as in gantheng      / gənthəŋ/

d     as in darurat         /dərurt/

dh   as in bundu’         /bundhu?/

c     as in carok            /crok/

j      as in janggu’         /jəŋgu?/

jh    as in jaran             /jhərən/

t     as in ganteng         /gənthəŋ/

 

Morphoponemic Transformation

It’s not only English and some other language that have morphophonemic transcription but the Madurese Language as well. Madurese language has its own characteristic in transforming the phoneme which are some times arbitrary. The function of the trabsformation in the Madurese language is simply to make the language nicer to hear. The morphophonemic are as follow :

1. Assimilation

The base form of the verb stated by acertain consonant and get a nasal prefix symbolized with [-n] form an active –transitive verb by coalescing the consonant such the example below :

/p/        /b/                    coalisced with /m/

/t/         /dh/      /d/        coalisced with /n/

/k/                                coalisced with /ŋ/

/s/         /c/                    coalisced with /ny/

 

Example :

Pajang             /pΛjəŋ/        a tool for fishing

Majang            /mΛjəŋ/           to catch fish with pajang

 

Baca                /bəch/ to read

Maca               / m ch/          to read

 

Toles                /to lês/              to write

Noles               /nolês/              to write

 

Dhapa’                        /dhəp?/          to arrive

Napa  /np?/ to arrive

 

Care                 /cræ/               to tear

Nyare              /nj ræ/ to tear

 

The base form of the verb standar with vowel, add / ŋ/ at he base to form an activetransitif verb

 

Arte     /a:tæ/               meaning

Ngarte / ŋa:/           understand

Etc.

 

2. Suffix  /-na/ indicates possesive

The root of the word or base seeding in vowel or in /?/, suffik /-na/ is placed after base. Let’s see the example below :

Raja     /rjə/                 big

Rajana / rjən/            the size

 

Ompama /ompm/                        example

Ompamana /ompmn /         for example

 

Bakto              /bəkto  /          time

Baktona           /bəkton/         the time

 

Meanwhile, the bases of the word ending in consonant and get suffix /-na/, the phoneme /n/ in /-na/ should be replaced with the last consonant of the bases where the voiceless sound become coiced sound, for example :

 

Dhapor                        /dhəpor/           kitchen

Dhaporra         /dhəporr/        the kitchen

 

Ongkos            /  oŋkos/          fare

Ongkossa        /  oŋkoss/      the fare

 

Suffix /-na/ is also used to transfer adjective into adverb adjective into adverb after being added by root “ce’” /cæ?/

 

Ce’      /cæ?/                quite, very

Lebar   /læbərrə/          wide

Ce’ lebar / cæ? læbərrə/ quite wide

 

 

Morphological Proces Of The Madurese Language

The Morphological process being presented in this section employ following cases ; base or root, morpheme type, derivation consisting of prefix, infix, suffix and both prefix and suffix, inflection comprising plural form (reduplication).

  1. Base or Root

A base or root is a free form to which other morpheme may be attached. In Madurese language, the root going to discussed is related to the syllables of the word. There are about three bases of the Madurese Language which is accordance with the syllables as follow :

a. The base with one syllables

e /æ/                       at, on, in [as preposition]

se /sæ/                    that [conjuntion]

dha’/dhə?/             to

hal /hΛl/                about

ban /bn/                and, with

ka / kΛ/                 to

gun /ghun/ only

 

  1. The base with two syllables

badha /bədhə/        exist

bakto /bəkto  /       time

etc

 

  1. The base with three syllables

samangken /sΛmΛŋk æn/              now

manabi /mΛnΛbI/                           if

etc

 

2. Morpheme Type

The word banding /bəndIŋ/ is said to be the base consisting two syllables. It can be called as independent morpheme or free morpheme because it can occur alone as an independent word. The other examples of free morpheme in the Madurese language are; ban, badha, ampon, otaba, bannya’, etc. They can stand by themselves and don’t need any other morphemes to be attached. The other type of morpheme in the Madurese Language as a bound morpheme, a morpheme that cannot stand by itself; it must be attached to another morpheme. This kind of morpheme also called dependent morpheme because the morpheme cannot occur alone.  The /-aghI/ of //bəndIŋΛghI/cannot occur alone. It represent the suffix in Madurese language. It doesn’t have any meaning without being attached to the word /bəndIŋ/.

 

3. Derivation

Derivation is a process by which non inflectional affixes are added to bases to form words as “en-“  in enjoin, “-ful” in hopeful and both “dis-“ and “-ful” in distrustful. Below, the discussion going to focus on the affixation namely; prefix, infix, suffix, and both prefix and suffix.

a. Prefix

There are about five prefixes in Madurese Language going to presented, namely : /ma-/, /a-/, /e-/, /ta-/, and /pa-/. It will be clear with the example for each of the prefix, as follow :

> /ma-/   [noun]  makanca /mΛkΛncΛ/ → to cause to be friend

                                                     Vb. Causal

> mamaju [verb] [mΛmΛju]          to develop

                                           Vb. Active, focus on subject

> malancar [adj] /mΛlΛnca:/    to smothen

                                           Vb. Active, focus on subject

> masakone’ [numeral]  → to cause to be little

                                           Vb. Causal

b. Suffix

There are about five suffixes in Madurese Language going to be presented, namely: /-a/, /-an/,    /-ana/, /-aghi/, and /-e/. The examples are as follow

F suffix /-a/  could be form with the root noun, verb, adjective and also numeral

→ abengkowa /ΛbəŋkowΛ/        will live at his own house

→ bisa’a  /bIsΛ?a/                     → will be able to

→ mera’a /mærΛ?a/                  → will become red

→ dhuwa’a /dhuə?ə/                 → will become two

The other suffixes such as : /-an/, /-ana/, /-aghi/, /-e/ generally used with the other prefixes such as : /a-/, /-e/, /ma-/, /ka-/, and /pa(N)-/. They will be clear with the example below :

F Prefix and Suffix /pa(N)- + -an/ :

These affixes are formed with the base, noun, verb, and adjective

Noun                  → pangarteyan /pΛŋarteyan/  → understanding

Verb                   → pamekkeran /pΛmækkæran/ → thought

Adjective           → panerrangan /pΛnerraŋan/  → explanation

F Prefix and Suffix /ka- + -an/

These affixes are formed with the base, noun, verb, adjective, and numeral

Noun                  → karomatanggaan /kΛromΛtΛŋgaan/ → about household

Verb                   → kalakowan /kΛlΛkowΛn/  → job

Adjective           → kasaean /kΛsΛæΛn/ → something nice

Numeral → kabanya’an /kΛbənňa?an/ → most of

F Prefix and Suffix /(N)-/, /-a/, /ma-/, /e/ with /aghi/, /-e/, /-ana/ which formed with base : noun, verb, adjective and numeral

Base : [pote]      mapoteaghi /mΛpoteΛghI/  to make something white          

Base: [jalan] ajalanaghi /ΛjələnΛghI/ to carry something

Base:  [tengal] etengalana /ætæŋΛlΛnΛ/ will be seen

 

 

4. Inflextion

 

As had been expleined above that Inflextion is a process of affixation whether prefix, infix or suffix that doesn’t change the classes of words. The example of Madurese inflextion will be shown below

Verb [mamaju] /mΛmΛjhu/       to develop, with prefix /ma-/

Verb [ajalan] /Λjələn/  to walk, with prefix /a-/

Verb [bisa’a] /bIsΛ?Λ/ will be able, with suffix /-a/

 

Madurese Infixation

Madurese has five kinds of infixation, namely /-al-/, /-am-/, /-ar/, /-en/, and /-om-/,  the example each  of them will be shown below :

F Infix /-al-/ In word calemot           

base : cemot

Inserted by /-al-/ between consonant “c” and the rest phoneme “emot”

F Infix /-am-/ in word pamarenta

Base : parenta

Inserted by /-am-/ between consonant “p” and the rest of the phoneme “arenta”

F Infix /-am-/ in word karretek

Base : kettek

Inserted by /-ar-/ between consonant “k”and the rest of the phoneme “ettek”

F Infix /-am-/ in word penasthe

Base : pasthe

Inserted by /-en-/ between “p” and the rest phoneme “as the”

F Infix /-am-/ in word tomekka

Base : tekka

Inserted by consonant “t” and the rest of the phoneme “ “ekka”

 

English Morphology

Since there are so many books describing about English Morphology written by many authors, the writer of this article doesn’t describes English in detail, on the other hand I  only dechipers the process of morphology to be compared with the Madurese Language morphology.

 

Affixation

Affix is a group of letters or sounds added either to the beginning of a word, to the middle of a word, or to the end of a word. Since English doesn’t have any infix, here the focus of analisys only to the prefix and suffix.

 

English Prefix

Here are some prefixes in English which are commonly used in everyday English :

/mis-/, /re-/, /pre-/, /post-/, /bi-/, /semi-/, /in-/, /im-/, /il-/, /ir-/, /un-/, /dis-/, /-en-/, /inter-/, /intra-/, /extra-/, /trans-/, /tele-/, /over-/, /under-/, /up-/, /down-/, /in-/, and /out-/.

The example of the prefix will be shown on the table below :

 

 

 

Prefix

Base

Result

/mis-/,

 /re-/,

/pre-/,

 /post-/,

 /bi-/,

/semi-/,

/in-/,

 /im-/,

/il-/,

/ir-/,

/un-/,

/dis-/,

/-en-/, /inter-/, /intra-/, /extra-/, /trans-/, /tele-/, /over-/, /under-/, /up-/, /down-/, /in-/,

/out-/.

 

Use

Read

View

War

Lingual

Annual

Visible

Posible

Legal

Replaceable

Able

Like

Able

National

Venously

Curricular

Form

Phone

Charge

Charge

Stairs

Hill

Doors

side

Misuse

Reread

Preview

Postwar

Bilingual

semiannual

invisible

imposible

illegal

irreplaceable

unable

dislike

enable

international

intravenously

extracurricular

transform

telephone

overcharge

undercharge

upstairs

downhill

indoors

outside

 

English Suffixes

Suffixs is an affix that is placed at the end of the word or base. It usually affects the changing of the word classes such as verb to noun, from verb to adjectives, from noun to adjective, and from adjectives to noun. This kind of process is usually called as derivational suffixes or derivational morpheme[11].

  1. verb bocome Noun after being added by suffixes /-tion/, /-sion/, /-ure/, -al/, /ment-/, /-ce, ance/, /-ess/, /-th/

 

 

Suffix

verb

noun

/-tion/,

/-sion/,

/-ure/,

-al/, /ment-/,

/-ce, ance/

 /-ess/,

 /-th/

Inform

Decide

Please

Arrive

Govern

Guide

Succedd

die

Information

Decision

Pleasure

Arrival

Government

Guidance

Success

Death

 

  1. Verb become adjective being added by suffix /-able/

i.e. to bear       → bearable

  1. verb . become adjective after being added by suffixes /-y/, /-ous/, /-ful/, /-al/

Ø  anger→ angry

Ø  danger→dangerous

Ø  wonder→wonderfull

Ø  conditional→conditional

  1. Adjective become Noun after being added by suffixes /-ce/, /-ness/, /-ity/

Ø  patient→patence

Ø  sad→sadness

Ø  able→ability

 

Comparing Some Madurese And English Morphological Process

Having been analized both Madurese and English Morphological Process above, now come up to  compare between thele language, in this case the writer could express his idea that Madurese and English morphological have similiarities and differences process in several aspect.

  1. Assimilation

The process of assimilation, often a phonemic change which takes place when two morpheme are combined results in neighboring phonemes becoming more like each other, in Madurese Language as the process of changing the first consonant in order to form verb such as :

/p/ become /m/ as in pajang (N) → majang (V)

/b/ become /m/ as in baca (N) → maca (V)

/t/ become /n/ as in toles (V) → noles (V)

/dh/ become /n/ as in dhapa’(V) → napa’ (V)

/k/ become /ŋ/ as in kole’(N) → ngole’e (V)

/i/ become /ŋ/ as in iman (N) → ngimani (V)

Etc.

Meanwhile, assimilation in English takes place in the proces of affixes, usually prefix /in/ and /en/ are changing forming new words

/m/ become /in/ in imbalance →in + balance

/in/ become /im/as in impossible → in + possible

/in/ become /ir/ as in irregular → in + regular

/in/ become /em/ as in empower → in + power

/in/ become /il/ as in illegal → in + legal

  1. Base / root

Principally, the root of the Madurese Language is similar to the root of English because every language has been the same root that would be regarded as a source of word to which other morphemes may be attached. The thing that make them different is on the number of syllables. It’s impossible to find a base consisting of four syllables or five in Madurese Language. While English has more than four syllables in its base such as in the following classification :

The root of Madurese Language

syllables

The root of

English

Ban /bən/

Bakto /bəkto/

Samangken

-

-

One syllable

Two syllables

Three syllables

Four syllables

Five syllables

Man

Woman

Elephant

Alligator

hippopotamus

 

  1. Morpheme

The distribution of morpheme in the Madurese Language and English at the same. They have both free morpheme and bound morpheme. Let see the comparation below :

 

Madurese Morpheme

Bakto          → comprises one free morpheme

Baktona → comprises two morpheme, that is one free morpheme / bəkto/ and one bound morpheme /na/ which means possesive “one’s time”

Ajalan   → comprises two morpheme, that is one bound morpheme /a-/ and free morpheme /jalan/ which means “to walk”

Epokolla    comprises of three morpheme that is, the free morpheme /pokol/ means “to hit” and twobound morphemes ; ie, /e-/ and /-a/ that form future and passive voice “will be hit”

Etale’e  → comprises three morphemes, that is, one free morphemes /tale/ means “rope” and /-e/ as suffix which form a passive meaning “to be tied”

English Morpheme

Love          → comprises one free morpheme

Lover      → comprises one free morpheme /love/ and one bound morpheme /r/ which means “sweetheart”

Loved          → comprises one free morpheme /love/ and one bound morpheme /d/ which means “past form”

Unforgetable → comprises three morphemes that is noe bound morpheme /un-/ means “not” and two free morphemes /forget/ and /able/ which indicates “verb” and “adjective”

 

  1. Derivation

The process of affixes that change the classes of word is called derivation[12]. Both Madurese and English have this kind of process.

 

 

Madurese

English

Verb (V) become Noun

Pekker →pekkeran

lako→kalakoan

 

verb (V) become adjective

kepe’ → takepe’

lendes → talendes

 

Noun (N) become adjective

Pongkon → tapngkon

Terrang → panerrangan

 

Adjective become verb

Lancar → malancar

Raja → maraja

 

Noun become verb

Kanca → makanca

Sakola → asakola

 

Numeral become Verb

Sakone’ → masakone’

Banya’ → epabannya’

 

Numeral become Noun

Bannya’ → kabannya’an

Sakone’ → kasakone’an

Verb become Noun

Inform → information

Permit → permision

 

Verb become adjectives

Bear → bearable

Obtain → obtainable

 

Noun become adjecives

Anger → angry

Danger → dangerous

 

Adjective become Noun

Patient → patience

Sad → sadness

 

Adjective become verb

Large → enlarge

Rich → enrich

 

  1. Inflection

The process of affixes that doesn’t change the classes of word is called inflection [13]. Both Madurese and English have this kind of process. As shown below :

MADURESE

ENGLISH

koceng → noun

ceng-koceng → plural Noun

 

alako →  verb – work

alakowa → will work

 

eanggap → verb

passive “to be regarded”

eanggabbe → Verb, future passive, will be regarded

 

romatangga→Noun “household”

karomatanggaan → Noun

about household

Cats → cats = nouns plural

Work → verb

Works → Verb 3rd singular

                  Present

Worked → work =Verb

Worked = verb stem + past

 

From the table above, we can conclude that Madurese has more distribution in Inflection. It’s only has inflectional suffixes usually available in English, but also inflectional prefixes as well.

 

Clossing

Based on  the proces of morphological both  Madurese and English that shown above, finally we can conclude that Madurese and English have similarities and differences in the proces of morphology, especially on their morphemic distribution. While on the assimilation of both of them, Madurese Language has a wider distribution than that in English.

English nouns sometimes have the –s ending to show plurality, while in Madurese language, the pluralty marker in noun is none, yet plural inflection may transfere to reduplicationg in every noun-stem. Base or root in Madurese language has three syllables at most, while in English, the base of word could be four syllables or more. While, derivational prefix, and derivational suffixes, are found in both English and the Madurese language. Yet, English does not distribute Noun become Verb, Numeral become Verb, and Numeral become Nouns.

While the most important thing that infixation which only found in Madurese. The Madurese infixes are formed by the phoneme rest of the base from noun, adjective and verb. Infixation which is not found in English may present difficulties for a native speaker of English to learn on account of it distribution.

 

 

 

[1] Bahasa madura adalah salah satu bahasa Austronesia yang dipakai oleh lebih dari tiga belas juta penutur atau sekitar 5% penduduk Indonesia. Meskipun bahasa Madura memiliki jumlah penutur yang tidak sedikit karena menduduki peringkat nomor empat yang terbanyak dituturkan oleh penduduk Indonesia setelah Jawa, Indonesia dan Sunda. Mulyadi, Potensi Pergeseran Dalam Bahasa Madura, Okara Jurnal Bahasa dan Sastra, Vol III, tahun 2, Mei 2007, hal. 197

[2] Pulau madura yang terdiri dari empat kabupaten, yaitu Bangkalan, Sampang, Pamekasan, dan Sumenep terletak di timur laut pulau Jawa dengan koordinat sekita 7o lintang selatan dan antara 112o dan 114o bujur timur. Panjang pulau Madura Kurang lebih 190 Km, jarak terlebar 40 Km, dan luas secara keseluruhan adalah 5.304 km2. ketinggian dari permukaan laut berkisar antara 2 meter – 350 meter. Ketinggian paling rendah adalah daerah daerah pantai baik dibagian barat, utara, timur, dan selatan sedangkan ketinggian tertinggi menyebar di bagian tengah pulau berupa pegunungan-pegunungan kecil. Pulau ini dikelilingi oleh pulau-pulau kecil yang jumlahnya lebih dari 100, baik yang berpenghuni maupun yang tidak, kebanyakan berada dibagian timur, baca De Jonge 1989 pada Latief Wiyata, Carok Konflik Kekerasan Dan Harga Diri Orang Madura, 2002, LkiS, Yogjakarta, hal. 29.

[3] Secara Geografis, Kabupaten Pamekasan terletak pada posisi 6o 52 sampai 7o13 Lintang selatan dan 113o19 sampai 113o58 Bujur, dengan batas-batas administratif : sebelah utara, Laut Jawa; sebelah selatan; Selat Madura; sebelah barat; kabupaten Sampang dan sebelah Timur; kabupaten Sumenep, dengan luas wilayah sekitar 792,30 Km2 atau sekitar 79.230 HA, baca H. Kutwa, Pamekasan Dalam Sejarah, Karunia Offset, 2003, hal14

[4] Read, Moh Tajib, Materi Pangajaran Basa Madura Jilid III SMP Kelas III, GBPP 1988, edisi percobaan, baca juga Helene Bouvier, 2002, Yayasan Obor Indonesia, hal 24, dia menyatakan bahwa Bahasa Madura memiliki beberapa tingkat bahasa (antara tiga dan lima menurutnya) yang tidak dikenal ataupun dipraktekkan secara merata di semua lapisan masyarakat. Tingkat yang paling banyak digunakan adalah kasar, yaitu untuk berbicara kepada orang dengan umur dan status yang setara atau lebih rendah daripada diri sendiri, alos yang dipakai berbicara kepada orang ynag lebih tua atau sebagai bahasa sopan santun pada pertemuan pertama dengan orang ynag belum dikenal ; alos tengghi, yang dipakai bila betbicara kepada orang yang berstatus jauh lebih tinggi

[5] Stratifikasi tutur adalah suatu sistem bertutur kata yang mempunyai batas-batas jelas terhadap formalitas dan hal-hal yang menyangkut rasa hormat. Makin tinggi derajat formalitas dan rasa hormat yang ingin ditunjukkan dalam bertutur kata makin tinggi pula kesopanan yang ditunjukkan dalam bertutur kata. See Abdul Wahab, in Mulyadi, hal 198

[6] Photenical symbol is symbols used to show how the word should be pronunce in its own language. The symbol used in this article is the International phonetical Alphabet, See, AP Cowie, Oxford Learner’s Pocket Dictionary, Oxford University Press, sixth impression 1987

[7] Read, Ronald Wardaugh, Introduction to Linguistic, university of Toronto, McGraw-Hill book company , 1972 p.46, he states that morphology as study of morphemes and their combination in words. See also, PH Mattews, An Introduction the Theory of Word-Structure, Cambridge University press, 1974, p39, …morphology as the study of form of words,

While, A Nida Eugene, 1974, define morphology is the meaningful unit of which a alnguage is composed. Morphemes and their combination in words, form of words, and a meaningful unit, seem to be differents espression at first glance but they actually present the same meaning; that is , expressing about words.

[8] A professor of Education and linguistics in Beirut University college, Lebanon, Raja T Nasr, 1985, The Essentials of Linguistic Science, Longman group ltd

[9] We can also observe that in English all the inflectional affixes are suffixes, as in cats, man’s, judged, and so on. The only exception occurs in forms like men, deer, and took which either show some change in the middle of the form, as in men and took to indicate “plural” and “past tense” respectively, or show no change at all to indicates “pliural” as in the deer of two deer. English derivational affixes may either prefixes or suffixes. Retake, unbend, and dispossess are words with derivational prefixes, brighten, judgement, and victimize are example of derivational suffixes, and unemployment, unindirectional are examples of both prefixing and suffixing.  Ronald Wardaugh, Introduction to Linguistic, 1972, University of Toronto, McGraw-Hill book company, p85

[10] The complete consonant phonemes of Madurese shown clearly in  Aziz Safiudin, Kamus Bahasa Madura – Indonesia, Pusat Pembinaan dan Pengembangan Bahasa, Depdikbud Jakarta, 1977

[11] Morpheme that change the meaning or part of speech of a word they attach to are called derivational morphemes. Other morphemes do not alter words in this way but onlgrammatical information about the word’s already existing meaning. For example, cat and cats are both nouns that have basically the same meaning (ie, they refer to the same sort of thing), but cats, with the plural morpheme –s, contains only the additional information that there are more than one of these things referred to. Inn English the derivational morphemes are either prefixes or suffixes, but by chance, the inflextional morphemes are all suffixes. Of course, this is not the same in other languages. Stefanie Jannedy et al, Language Files, 1991, Ohio state University

[12] Ibid, page135

[13] Ibid, page 135

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3 Comments

  1. as a madurese, thaks for your artcle, it will be a nice gift for our people [madura], thanks bro…….

  2. memang benar metode pembelajaran yang harus digunakan harus berfariasi karena untuk mencegah kejenuhan para siswa yang akan belajar dikelas….
    apalagi pembelajaran yang dikelas yang seringkali monotone yang isa membuat para siswa jenuh dengan model pembelajaran seperti itu….

  3. its. ok!
    I hope your succes in madurese and english language!!!!!
    ———————————————————————–
    ” ORENG MADURE”


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